The 21st edition of the International Cave Bear Symposium (ICBS) took place in the Netherlands in 2015. It was a fitting host as this is a unique country in paleontological terms. While the sediments that are found near the surface are of a relatively young age (Holocene), our fossil record is also particularly rich in Pleistocene material – mostly the effect of being bordered by the North Sea. In Pleistocene glacial times, the North Sea was dry land and densely populated by mammoths, bison, woolly rhinoceros and horses, closely followed by carnivores such as the cave lion, cave hyena, wolves and brown bear – evidence of which is still commonly discovered.
The proceedings of the 21st ICBS were published in Cranium 33-1, 2016, by the WPZ.